Introduction-page: Frequently Asked Questions on CV
are sunspots ?
2. How do I observe sunspots ?
3. What are the Zürich Magnetic Classifications ?
4. What is the Modified Zürich-System: Zürich/McIntosh-System ?
5. What is the CV-Classification Values after Malde ?
6. Why not observe to the well established Relative numbering-system ?
7. How can I join the CV-Helios Network (CV after Malde),
and is there an annual fee for membership ?
8. How do I submit observations to the CV-Helios Network ?
9. Are the CV-Annual Reports published anywhere ?
1. Sunspots appear on the disk of the Sun. Sunspots
are regions of the photosphere where the gases are up to 1500K
cooler than those of the surrounding photosphere. A sunspot will
have a very dark central region known as the umbra. It is often
surrounded by a less dark halo known as the penumbra. If they
could be removed from the Sun, they would be seen to shine
brightly. They appear dark only by contrast with the hotter,
brighter surrounding photosphere.
Spots change over a period of several days. Individual sunspots have lifetimes that range from a few hours to a few months. Many spots become much larger than the Earth, and a few have reached diameters of 50,000 km. Very few about 5 times this diameter.
2. First thing to say:
NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN, ESPECIALLY NOT THROUGH A TELESCOPE
THAT IS NOT EQUIPPED WITH PROPER PROTECTION (Strong Solar Filter!)
THIS WILL RESULT IN PERMANENT DAMAGED EYESIGHT OR BLINDNESS!!!
IT MAY EVEN BE HASARDOUS TO PROJECT YOUR TELESCOPE AT THE SUN
LOOKING THROUGH FOG OR EVEN AT A SUNRISE/SUNSET!
Once again, naked eye observations of the Sun will result in blindness! The improper use of telescopes or binoculars will cause blindness. There are safe and easy ways to safely observe the Sun. Incorrect observation of the Sun causes blindness because of the tremendous amount of visible and invisible light coming off of its surface. Sunglasses and other inappropriate filters may block visible light but can not cut out enough ultraviolet and infrared light, causing the eye's retina to burn out. A projected image of the Sun is, however, perfectly safe to observe.
This is also the most common way in which to observe sunspots. Some may prefer direct vision, but you then require a Mylar-filter. The light has to be reduced about 10 000 times to reach the proper level of light the human eye can bare. The most common way to observe the sunspots are, as mentioned above, as a projected image. If you block the stray-light on three sides of a built-in cardbox or phelt, the image will stand clearer, nearly like a dias-picture.
3. The Zürich Magnetic Classifications are the 7 classes implied by Rudolph Wolf at the old swiss Zürich Observatory nearly 150 years ago. They consisted of the Classes A, B, C, D, E, F and H. The classes also had another name under Waldmeier (Brunner), where the classes G and J were added. They are really included in some D, E, F and H-classes nowadays. You may read more about this under the article "CV - CLASSIFICATION VALUES after Malde", the ultimate measure of Solar activity. You will now see further down that the 7 classes was wisely extended to 60 classes by Patrick S. McIntosh of NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA in 1973.
4. The Modified Zürich-System: Zürich/McIntosh-System was implied by Patrick S. McIntosh of NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA in 1973. This system takes into consideration the Magnetic Class of the sunspotgroups, the polarity, the length and distribution along with the complexiness of the sunspotgroups. Read more about it in the article "CV - CLASSIFICATION VALUES after Malde", the ultimate measure of Solar activity.
5. The CV-Classification Values after Malde is basing on the above mentioned Zürich/McIntosh-system implied in 1973 by Dr. Patrick S. McIntosh. The first experiments were done in July 1978. After three years of testing, the system was made 'official', i.e. in August 1981. This system weights all the 60 classes into a calculative system regarding the ability of survival, potensiality of flareproducing, lifecycle, and so on. Read more about the system in the article "CV - CLASSIFICATION VALUES after Malde", the ultimate measure of Solar activity.
6. The purpose of the system is NOT to try and compete with other established systems like the Relative-numbering system, only giving the eager solar amateur an opportunity of either make a choice, use some systems, or all. The latter might be a wise thing to do. Then you will have the odd chance to compare systems to aim at the finding of very good measures of solar activity. The amateur is limited to his more or less low-cost equipment.
You may join the CV-Helios Network (CV after Malde) right here
Just click on this line: I want to join the CV-Helios Network!.
You will not be charged with any annual fee! It is totally FREE!
(Note! As a Passive member you are on the mailing list for 5 years)
8. Observations to the CV-Helios Network may be submitted in several ways:
* By regular
Telephone: (47) 98 69 28 56
them on the e-mail: c v h e l i o s @ g
m a i l . c o m
(with spaces here to avoid spam)
as they are or as an attachment
* Using the Online Observation Sheet (write to the above email to be registered and get login/password)
NOTE! If you for some reason send only the Classifications, they are easily convertable!
9. The CV-Annual Reports are published
annually in the german magazine Sonne
If you like to subscribe to this magazine, the address is as follows:
c/o Peter Völker
Please do not forget return postage!
(If you know of
any astronomical magazine interested in publishing, please let us
A new service has become available from 1998; observers with an e-mail address may subscribe to both monthly (preliminary), quarterly (preliminary) and annual reports (official).
Please submit a note to: e-mail: c v h e l i o s @ g m a i l . c o m
(with spaces here to avoid spam) indicating which you want to enter a subscription for.
Updated: 02 nov 2017